The Science

The Science

The role of magnesium in memory and cognitive function has long been suggested, but not proven. Only recently, a unique compound called Magtein™ was discovered by a group of scientists from MIT, including a Nobel Prize laureate. It was hypothesized that brain synapse density correlated to age-dependent memory loss. The animal research included the following three phases:

The study showed that by increasing the brain’s magnesium level, Magtein could increase the learning ability, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in young and aged rats. It also showed that common magnesium compounds do not effectively improve brain magnesium levels, which is required to improve memory and cognitive functions. Please contact us for a detailed technical review.

interviewDr. Liu talks about the importance of Magnesium to cognitive function.

Published Research

“Effects of Elevation of Brain Magnesium on Fear Conditioning, Fear Extinction, and Synaptic Plasticity in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.“ Abrumania, Yin, Zhang, Li, Chen, Descalzi, Zhao, Ahn, Luo, Ran, Zhuo, Liu; The Journal of Neuroscience, October 19, 2011; 31(42): 14871-14881.

“Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium”, Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, Zhao X, Govindarajan A, Zhao MG, Zhuo M, Tonegawa S, Liu G. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77.

“Elevation of Brain Magnesium Prevents and Reverses Cognitive Deficits and Synaptic Loss in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model”, Li W., Yu J., Liu Y., Huang X., Abumaria N., Zhu Y., Huang X., Xiong W., Ren C., Liu X., Chui D., and Liu G., Journal of Neuroscience, 2013. 33(19): p8423-41

“Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model”. (Li, W., et al.,) “Chronic dietary magnesium-L-threonate speeds extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion”. Mickley GA, Hoxha N, Luchsinger JL, Rogers MM, Wiles NR. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2013 Mar 6;106C:16-26.


Learning and memory are fundamental brain functions affected by dietary and environmental factors. Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, Magtein) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats. The pattern completion ability was also improved in aged rats. Magtein- treated rats had higher density of synaptophysin-/synaptobrevin-positive puncta in DG and CA1 subregions of hippocampus that were correlated with memory improvement. Functionally, magnesium increased the number of functional presynaptic release sites, while it reduced their release probability. The resultant synaptic reconfiguration enabled selective enhancement of synaptic transmission for burst inputs. Coupled with concurrent upregulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and its downstream signaling, synaptic plasticity induced by correlated inputs was enhanced. Our findings suggest that an increase in brain magnesium enhances both short-term synaptic facilitation and long-term potentiation and improves both learning and memory functions.

Next Steps

Ongoing Magtein research is continuing to uncover a variety of new discoveries. This unique form of magnesium is being evaluated by research communities for Alzheimer’s, dementia, insomnia and other aging conditions. AIDP is investing in Magtein research for greater market potential and the discovery of future benefits. For memory and cognitive health, Magtein is the category standard. Only AIDP’s Magtein is research based and self-affirmed GRAS. For the most accurate and current research, contact AIDP at

“This study not only emphasizes the importance of adequate dietary magnesium, but also indicates the benefits of magnesium-based medicine in addressing aging-related memory decline.”

—Susumu Tonegawa
MIT Biologist and 1987 Nobel Prize Winner

Animal Testing Click to enlarge

In animal research, Magtein was shown to increase total brain synapses vs. control. Increased brain synaptic density is correlated with improved memory. The study also found that when Magtein was no longer administered, brain synapse density reversed back down.


Magtein White Paper

Science-Based-Discussion of the Role of Magtein.png Click Here

Magtein has four published pre-clinical trials. An overview of Magtein’s mechanism of action and the research results are summarized in the white paper. In-depth technical reviews are available to manufacturers by contacting us directly.

Frequently Asked Questions

What clinical studies have been completed?

Four published studies exist on Magtein. The list is located on “The Press” and “The Science Page”. The first is an animal study that was published in Neuron, one of the world’s top three scientific neurology journals. In the Neuron paper, Magtein was shown to uniquely increase brain magnesium levels and improve brain function. This article was published in Jan 2010 by a group of scientists at MIT including a Nobel Prize laureate. They showed that by increasing the brain’s magnesium level, Magtein could increase learning ability, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in young and aged rates. They also showed that common magnesium compounds do not effectively improve brain magnesium levels.

In the October 2011 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience, top neuroscientists at Tsinghua University in Beijing, University of Texas, and University of Toronto revealed that by increasing the extracellular magnesium concentration in the brain through a new magnesium compound called Magtein™, the cognitive ability – an essential facility that controls fear and anxiety – is enhanced. This development becomes extremely significant considering anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in America, affecting 18% of the population.

A research group at Baldwin Wallace University, independently demonstrated that proprietary ingredient Magtein™, which is designed to improve memory, recognition and learning, enhanced the memory lead to the consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. The study was led by G. Andrew Mickley, Ph.D. of The Neuroscience Program at Baldwin Wallace University, Berea, Ohio, and published in Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior, March 6, 2013.

The report, that appeared in the Journal of Neuroscience, (Li, W., et al.), “Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model”, 2013. 33(19): p8423-41.), shows that a recently developed Magnesium L-Threonate compound known as Magtein™, patented and owned by Magceutics, Inc. and exclusively distributed by City of Industry, Calif.-based AIDP, Inc., may prevent cognitive impairment when administered to mice with early stage AD. The treatment was shown to remain effective for at least 16 months. Additionally, Magtein™ significantly improved memory and cognition when given to advanced stage AD mice. Scientists at the Center for Learning and Memory, Tsinghua University, Beijing, have demonstrated a novel therapy for reversing memory decline in mice with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). By increasing brain magnesium levels, they found significant cognitive improvement in advanced stage AD mice. The study is the first to demonstrate a mechanism for reversing cognitive decline for advanced stage AD mice, as well as showing an effective long-term treatment for early stage AD mice.

How does Magtein work?

Magtein is able to pass through the blood brain barrier more effectively than other magnesium forms. Improved brain function is closely associated with the increased synaptic connections in the DG and CA1 sub regions of Hippocampus that are known to control memory. The clinical research indicated a greater brain synapse density in subjects taking Magtein.

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